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全国棉花平均单产趋势为增产年—全国棉花生产气象月报(2020年8月)

出处: 中国棉花协会    2020年09月07日

ebetXIANGMUCHENGDAN: GUOJIAQIXIANGZHONGXIN

DIAOCHADUIXIANG: 13GECHANMIANSHENG(QU)201GECHANMIANXIAN61GEQIXIANGZHAN

DIAOCHASHIJIAN: 2020NIAN8YUE

摘要: 至8月末,西北、黄河流域、长江流域大部棉花处于开花至裂铃吐絮期。月内,全国棉区平均气温为27.6℃,比上年和常年同期分别偏高0.2℃和1.3℃;平均日照时数为222.7小时,比上年和常年同期分别偏多0.9小时和1.7小时;平均降水量为130.8毫米,比上年和常年同期分别偏多41.7毫米和26.3毫米。新疆大部棉区气象条件利于棉花花铃生长和裂铃吐絮,但部分棉区高温和多雨天气不利棉花生长发育;黄河流域棉区大部时段光热条件适宜,但部分棉区多雨寡照导致棉花蕾铃脱落或烂铃;长江流域棉区多晴少雨,利于棉花开花结铃。

MIANHUABOZHONGZHI8YUEMO,QUANGUOMIANQUZONGHEQIHOUSHIYIZHISHUWEIJIAOSHIYI,YU2019NIANXIANGBI,QUANGUOMIANHUAPINGJUNDANCHANQUSHIWEIZENGCHANNIAN。

一、棉花生长发育进程

ZHI8YUEMO,XIBEI、HUANGHELIUYU、ZHANGJIANGLIUYUDABUMIANHUACHUYUKAIHUAZHILIELINGTUXUQI。DABUZHUCHANSHENGMIANHUAFAYUQIJIEJINCHANGNIANHUOTIQIAN3~15TIAN,HENAN、HEBEI、SHANXI、SHANXIHEXINJIANGJUBUMIANQUFAYUQITUICHI3~6TIAN。MUQIAN,ZHUCHANMIANSHENGYI、ERLEIMIAOBILIWEI10%HE90%,DABUMIAOQINGJIAOHAO。

二、棉花气候适宜程度分析

1、新疆大部棉区气象条件利于棉花花铃生长和裂铃吐絮,但部分棉区高温和多雨天气不利棉花生长发育

ebetXIBEINEILUMIANQUYUEPINGJUNQIWENWEI25.5℃,BISHANGNIANTONGQIPIANDI0.6℃,BICHANGNIANTONGQIPIANGAO1.0℃;YUERIZHAOSHISHUWEI276.5XIAOSHI,BISHANGNIANTONGQIPIANDUO16.2XIAOSHI,BICHANGNIANTONGQIPIANSHAO16.5XIAOSHI;YUEJIANGSHUILIANGWEI11.3HAOMI,BISHANGNIANHECHANGNIANTONGQIFENBIEPIANDUO3.4HAOMIHE0.7HAOMI。YUENEI,XINJIANGMIANQUDABUQIWENPIANGAO、JIANGSHUIPIANSHAO,QIXIANGTIAOJIANDUIMIANHUAHUALINGSHENGZHANG、LIELINGTUXUYOULI,DANBUFENDIQUCHUXIANDECHIXUGAOWENDUIMIANHUAHUALINGSHENGZHANGLVEYOUYINGXIANG,LINGWAI,ZHONGXIAXUNBEIJIANGBUFENMIANQUJIANGSHUIPIANDUO,DUIMIANHUALIELINGTUXUBULI。XINJIANGMIANHUAJIANCEDIANJIANCEZILIAOBIAOMING: BEIJIANGMIANQUDANZHUFUTAOSHUPINGJUNWEI4.49GE,JIAOCHANGNIANYUQUNIANFENBIEPIANSHAO0.27GEYU1.05GE;NANJIANGMIANQUPINGJUNWEI5.39GE,JIAOCHANGNIANYUQUNIANFENBIEPIANDUO1.08GEYU0.17GE。

XIBEINEILUMIANQUMIANHUABOZHONGZHI8YUEMO,ZONGHEQIHOUSHIYIZHISHUWEIJIAOSHIYI,YU2019NIANXIANGBI,XIBEINEILUQUMIANHUAPINGJUNDANCHANQUSHIWEIZENGCHANNIAN。

2、黄河流域棉区大部时段光热条件适宜,但部分棉区多雨寡照导致棉花蕾铃脱落或烂铃

黄河流域棉区月平均气温为26.8℃,比上年和常年同期分别偏高0.6℃和0.9ebet℃;月日照时数为177.9小时,比上年和常年同期分别偏少7.5小时和17.2小时;月降水量为215毫米,比上年和常年同期分别偏多67.7毫米和83.2毫米。黄河流域棉区月内大部时段光热条件较为适宜,降水量有100~250毫米,对棉花生长发育和产量形成基本有利;但棉区大部出现阶段性多雨寡照天气,部分棉田发生短时渍涝灾害,造成棉花蕾铃脱落或发生烂铃。

HEBEIMIANQUYUENEIRELIANGTIAOJIANJIAOWEISHIYI,8YUE1~2RI、5~6RI、10RI、12~13RI、15~16RI、18~19RI、23~24RIYIJI30~31RICHUXIANDUOCIJIANGSHUIGUOCHENG,QIEKONGJIANFENBUHELI、YOUXIAOXINGQIANG,DABUMIANQUSHANGQINGSHIYI,SHUIFENTIAOJIANKEMANZUMIANHUASHENGZHANGXUQIU。DANYOUYUYURIDUO、RIZHAOSHAO、SHIDUDA,BUFENMIANHUAYOUTUZHANGXIANXIANG,MIANZHUXIABUCHENGLINGLVDI,LEILINGTUOLUO,FUQIANTAOYOULANLINGXIANXIANG,YINGXIANGMIANHUACHANLIANGXINGCHENG。

SHANDONGMIANQUDABUSHIDUANGUANGWENSHIYI,YUENEIJIANGSHUIPINFAN,MIANTIANSHANGQINGDEDAOBUTONGCHENGDUGAISHAN,DUIMIANHUAHUALINGQISHENGZHANGYOULI;TONGSHI,DUANSHIQIANGJIANGSHUIJIAODUO,DUISIDAIMIANLINGCHONGDEFASHENGFAZHANYOUYIDINGYIZHIZUOYONG。DANJUDIDUANSHIQIANGJIANGSHUIZAOCHENGBANDAOXIBU,LUZHONGDONGBU,LUNAN、LUXIBEIBUFENDIQUPINGYUANJIDIWANONGTIANCHUXIANDUANSHIJISHUI,YOUYUJISHUISHIJIANJIAODUAN,DUIMIANHUASHENGZHANGYINGXIANGJIAOXIAO,LINGWAI,BANDAO、LUDONGNAN、LUZHONGDONGBU、LUXIBEIXIBUBUFENDIQUGUAZHAORISHU(DANRIRIZHAOSHISHU≤3XIAOSHI)ZAI10TIANYISHANG,DUIMIANHUAHUALINGSHENGZHANGBULI。

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3、长江流域棉区多晴少雨,利于棉花开花结铃

ebetZHANGJIANGLIUYUMIANQUYUEPINGJUNQIWENWEI29.8℃,BISHANGNIANHECHANGNIANTONGQIFENBIEPIANGAO0.4℃HE1.8℃;YUERIZHAOSHISHUWEI230.1XIAOSHI,BISHANGNIANTONGQIPIANSHAO0.9XIAOSHI,BICHANGNIANTONGQIPIANDUO30.4XIAOSHI;YUEJIANGSHUILIANGWEI128.3HAOMI,BISHANGNIANTONGQIPIANDUO41.7HAOMI,BICHANGNIANTONGQIPIANSHAO9.8HAOMI。ZHANGJIANGLIUYUMIANQUDABUYUENEIGUANGRETIAOJIANMINGXIANZHUANHAO,WENGAOGUANGZULIYUTURANGJIANGZISANSHANGHEMIANHUAHUIFUSHENGZHANG。

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三、9月份棉区气候展望与建议

YUJI9YUE,QUANGUOMIANQUDABUQIWENJIEJINCHANGNIAN,XINJIANGDONGBEIBUCHUSHUANGQIPIANZAO1~3TIAN,XINJIANGZHONGBUHENANBUPIANWAN1~3TIAN,RELIANGTIAOJIANZONGTILIYUMIANHUAHOUQISHENGZHANG。XINJIANGBEIBUHEHUANGHELIUYUMIANQUDABUJIANGSHUIPIANDUO,KENENGCHUXIANJIEDUANXINGYINYUTIANQI,YINGXIANGMIANHUALIELINGTUXUHESHISHICAIZHAISHOUSHAI。ZHANGJIANGLIUYUMIANQUJIANGSHUILIANGJIEJINCHANGNIANHUOPIANSHAO,LIYUCHENGSHUMIANHUACAISHOU,DANHUNANDONGBEIBUHEJIANGXIBEIBUBUFENMIANQUKENENGCHUXIANJIEDUANXINGGANHAN。

建议: 各棉区应继续加强棉花肥水管理,做好整枝打顶工作,增加棉田通风透光,减少烂铃、蕾铃脱落;同时,及时摘除霉桃、烂桃,提高棉花质量。北疆机采棉区已进入脱叶剂喷施的关键时段,应根据当地天气预报适时喷施脱叶剂;南疆机采棉区将于9月中旬进入脱叶剂喷施阶段,需提前做好前期准备工作。长江流域降水偏少棉区应根据墒情适时灌溉,减轻干旱影响。另外,各棉区还要加强黄萎病、棉蚜虫、盲椿象、棉铃虫、红蜘蛛等病虫害防治,及时采收成熟棉桃。

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